Ari Folman’s The Congress (2013) borrows freely from Stanisław Lem’s dystopian view in his Sci-fi novel The Futurological Congress (1971) to propose the gradual dissolution of the human into an artificial form, which is animation. By moving the action of the novel from a hypothetical future to contemporary Hollywood, Ari Folman gives CGI animation the role of catalyst for changes not only in the production system, but for human thought and, therefore, for society. This way, the film ponders the changing role of performers at the time of their digitalization, as well as on the progressive dematerialization of the film industry, considering a dystopian future where simulation fatally displaces reality, which invites relating The Congress with Jean Baudrillard’s and Alan Cholodenko’s theses on how animating technologies have resulted in the culture of erasing. Moreover, this article highlights how Lem’s metaphor of the manipulation of information in the Soviet era is transformed in the second part of The Congress into a vision of cinema as a collective addiction, relating it to Alexander Dovzhenko’s and Edgar Morin’s speculative theories of total film – which come close to the potentialities of today’s Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality. In addition, although The Congress is a disturbing view of film industry and animating technologies, its vision of film is nostalgically retro as it vindicates an entire tradition of Golden Age animation that transformed the star system into cartoons, suggesting the fictionalization of their lives and establishing a postmodern continuum between animation and film.
- March 14, 2022
『アニメーション研究』第20巻第2号、第21巻第1、2号と、『Animation: An Interdisciplinary Journal』第14巻第3号から第16巻第3号の論文情報を追加。
- February 14, 2020
トップページに検索窓と更新履歴の設置。『アニメーション研究』第20巻第1号と、『Animation: An Interdisciplinary Journal』第14巻第1号、第2号の論文情報を追加。4件の推薦文献リストとそれに伴う新規文献の追加。
This article studies the notion of plasticity that Sergei Eisenstein identified as key to the practice of animation. But rather than approaching plasticity only in aesthetic terms, the article extends its meaning to consider animated figures’ power over their beholders. By looking at both historical and contemporary case studies, from Athanasius Kircher’s experiments in the 17th century to present-day virtual reality applications developed by the US military, the author seeks to understand the transformative potential of animation with regard to psychic life, and how this potential has been turned into a practice of power.
This article introduces and critically engages with the animated films produced in the geopolitical reality of South Korea from the colonial period under Japanese occupation to the present, and the animation-related phenomena they caused. In the past, studies of South Korean animation have tended to describe it merely in terms of a production factory on the international scene of animation. However, the history of South Korean animation, many parts of which have been forgotten or not recorded, is as extensive as that of South Korea itself. In exploring the historical and political contexts of South Korean animation in chronological order, the aim is not to present a grand narrative of national cinema. Rather, the article hopes to shed some light on the complex web of animation production, aesthetic expression and South Korean ideologies and political situations.
My purpose for the list as a whole was to make a list of texts that teach how to create motion with pictures. When you teach animation, you often receive questions about how to do that. So, we have created a list of reference material that can lead to practical knowledge. The selector supplied this list from her production experience, which spans more than 30 years. We hope that students will use these materials at the early stages of learning—looking, understanding, and applying—and will acquire practical knowledge about “moving,” a useful foundation for their creative activities.
- Oda, Takashi. Beautiful, Artistic Anatomy, Genkosha, 2018.
- Michel, Lauricella. Morpho, Eyrolles, 2014.
- Animation 6 nin no kai. The Animation Book: Basic Knowledge on Drawing Moving Pictures and the Reality of Drawing (rev.ed.), Godo Shuppan, 2010.
- Whitaker, Harold and Halas, John. Timing for Animation, Focal Press, 1983.
- Kyoto Animation. The Kyoto Animation Guide to Drawing, Kyoto Animation, 2010.
- James, Gurney. Color and Light: A Guide for the Realist Painter, Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2012.
- Gilland, Joseph. Elemental Magic, Volume Ⅱ: The Technique of Special Effects Animation, Routledge, 2011.
- Richard, Garvey-Williams. National Geographic: Mastering Composition: The Definitive Guide for Photographers, Nikkei National Geographic, 2017.
- Muybridge, Eadweard. The Human Figure in Motion, Dover publications, 1955.
- Muybridge, Eadweard. Animals in Motion, Dover publications, 1957.
- Zlatko Sudović (ed), Zagrebački krug crtanog filma I - IV, Zavod za kulturu Hrvatske, 1978-1986
- Ranko Munitić, Pola veka filmske animacije u Srbiji, Institut za film, 1999
- Miroslav Kačor, Michal Podhradský, Michaela Mertová, Zlatý věk české loutkové animace, Mladá Fronta, 2010
- František Dryje, Ivo Purš, Bertrand Schmitt, Jan Švankmajer, Jan Švankmajer: Dimensions of Dialogue: Between Film and Fine Art, Arbor Vitae, 2013
- Igor Prassel, "Filmography of Slovenian Animated film 1952-2012" (Slovenska kinoteka, 2012)
- Chris Robinson, Estonian Animation: Between Genius and Utter Illiteracy, John Libbey Publishing, 2007
- Christian Dewald, Sabine Groschup, Mara Mattuschka, Thomas Renoldner, Die Kunst des Einzelbildes - Animation in Österreich - 1832 bis heute, Filmarchiv Austria, 2010
- Jerzy Armata, Mariusz Frukacz, Marcin Giżycki, Ryszard Haja, Adriana Prodeus, Mateusz Solarz, Bogusław Zmudziński, Polski film animowany — [Polish animated film], Polskie Wydawnictwo Audiowizualne, 2008
- Mariusz Frukacz, "Fresh Blood of Polish Animation," ASIFA Magazine, Volume 22, No. 2, 2009, pp.26 -33
- Erzsi Lendvai, "Animated Cartoons in Hungary", in FilmKultúra, 1996
- Peter Hames (ed.), The Cinema of Jan Svankmajer: Dark Alchemy, Wallflower Press, 2007
I have selected books concerning the history, industry, and techniques of 3DCG in general. In relation to CG animation, I chose books related to the world-renowned group Pixar and the necessary books for understanding Japanese CG animation.
- Ōguchi, Takayuki. Konpyūta Gurafikkusu no Rekishi: 3DCG to iu Imajinēshon, Film Art, Inc., 2009.
- Masson,Terrence. CG101:A Computer Graphics Industry Reference (2nd Edition), Digital Fauxtography, 2007.
- Price, David A.. The Pixar Touch : the Making of a Company, Hayakawa Shobo, 2009.
- Catmull, Edwin and Wallace, Amy. Creativity Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration, Random House, 2014.
- Ōmura, kōichi et al. CG101: A Computer Graphics Industry Reference (2nd Edition), Digital Fauxtography, 1985.
- Doi, Hiroko. Super Team Polygon Pictures: The 15th Anniversary of Polygon Pictures, Axis Publishing, 1998.
- Kuno, Tsutomu. Shirogumi dokuhon, Fujinsha, 2016.
- Computer Graphics (rev. ed.), Computer Graphic Arts Society (CG-ARTS), 2015.
- Kurachi, Noriko. The Magic of Computer Graphics: Landmarks in Rendering, CRC Press, 2007.
- NOGUCHI Koichi. Nihon shijō ni okeru CG animēshon no genjō: Rakuen tsuihō wo chūshin ni (The Current State of CG Animation in the Japanese Market: Focusing on Expelled from Paradise). Animēshon Kenkyū 18-1, 2016.